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For data operation on 60 metres (5 MHz) bandwidth is limited to 2.8 kHz. This is the same bandwidth as voice in these channels.
This is just a limit, so narrower modes are permitted.
In these regulations bandwidth is measured 26 dB below the average power level.
When you operate a hand-held radio, or a radio on the dashboard or desk in front of you, this is local control. A remote head connected to a radio elsewhere in a vehicle or room is local control too.
If you are operating through a repeater, then the retransmission by the repeater, and things like it timing out if you waffle too long are under Automatic control. Other examples are APRS station reporting position or weather. Other packet, PACTOR, and similar stations can also be under automatic control.
An interesting variation on APRS would be mains power status reporting, although reporting just my home address and the repeater site as both being off to the supply company was "interesting" enough experience.
If you are using a home station from nearby using a HT, this is remote control, and the home station becomes an auxiliary station. There are various restriction on the bands on which this can be done, although the paper does not go into these. Another example is the Remote Ham Radio system, which allows a range of stations in excellent locations to be used via the Internet. Thus the PC, smartphone or tablet becomes the control point.
Another example is that an Elecraft K3 can control another K3, including via the Internet.
An interesting experiment would be to "hack" the link between something like an FT-897D and its control head over an internet link. The serial data protocol has been partly decoded. That said, it may not be necessary to fully understand it to convey it over an IP link.
Various arrangements are in place which allow amateurs visiting between a range of countries to operate without applying for a licence. This applies to both the Amateur Service, and the Amateur Satellite Service.
The International Amateur Radio Permit is gained by applying, with a fee, to the ARRL, and permits operating in certain CITEL (Inter-American Telecommunication Commission) member countries.
CITEL members recognising the IARP are Argentina, Brazil, Canada, El Salvador, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, United States of America, Uruguay, and Venezuela.
This is NOT needed for US Amateurs operating in Canada; just identify as AG9JK/VE1, etc, as there is a bilateral agreement.
This is the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations, based in Denmark, and in this context, it relates to Amateur Radio related determinations of the Electronics Communications Committee (a successor to the European Radio Committee).
US Amateur Extra and Advanced licence holders (who are US citizens) can operate in many countries from Greenland (part of the Kingdom of Denmark) to Ukraine; Svalbard (part of the Kingdom of Norway) to New Caledonia (a special collectivity of France); Iceland to Turkey and Cyprus; and Estonia to the Azores (Portugal) under T/R 61-01. Some non-CEPT member countries which are signatories may recognise licences from other non-member signatories, others may not.
St Pierre and Miquelon in the Gulf of St. Lawrence near Newfoundland is an overseas collectivity of France, where the prefix FP is used by visitors. Several Caribbean locations, and Guyane are also part member nations; while Overseas countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands and overseas territories of the Netherlands are non-member signatories.
Download: T/R 61-01
US General licence holders (who are US citizens) can operate in European countries that have adopted ECC Recommendation (05)06.
Download: Recommendation (05)06
Note that CEPT membership extends to European countries beyond the European Union, and that the UK's membership has continued, despite the idiocy which is "Brexit". Crown Dependencies are included, while British Overeas Territories (BOTs) are not.
US Amateurs must carry FCC Public Notice DA 11-221, as their licence, which also must be carried, does not contain the multi-lingual text the CEPT requires.
CEPT member country Amateurs can also operate in the US (and Canada).
Australian Advanced operators can operate in CEPT countries under T/R 61-01. The VK Standard evidently is too easy for ECC Recommendation (05)06.
While there isn't directly a question on this topic, the benefit is that visitors don't have to deal with the telecommunications authorities in the countries they visit, nor the CEPT or ECC.
Operators simply follow the table of prefixes, such as FK8/AG6LE, or W4/LA7JS.
Off the exam, there are direct "bilateral" agreements between countries such as Australia and the US. In some cases they allow operation without applying for a licence, in others an application for a licence or permit is needed, but no exam. Likewise, some allow a person moving between countries to obtain a permanent licence to be obtained without exam. Some countries have quite open permissions, plus there are international organisations, like the ITU in Geneva, which have club stations which any Amateur can use, with prior application. UN employees in NYC can use the club station there.
The International Telecommunications Union, National Telecommunications and Information, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration all have little direct impact on the day-to-day operation of Amateur stations. ITU set rules and recommendations which guide the FCC and NTIA, and other agencies globally. The NTIA allocates channels and licences for Federal agencies. Its infamy is its last minute opposition to a regular band allocation at 60 metres (5 MHz).
In most cases Amateurs deal with the FCC, the Federal Communications Commission. That said, in many cases, notification to the FCC is NOT required, except permanent or long-term change of address.
Nor, for that matter, will Hams have to deal with Space Farce, oops, Space Force, I expect.
One body Amateurs who wish to use 2200 or 630 metres need to notify is the Utilities Technology Council, referred to it the exam by its former name, the Utilities Telecom Commission. See Spectrum Services at: utc.org
Launching a satellite is a major undertaking, even for a university, although "CubeSats", "TubeSats", and the like are lowering the barriers. While there are various legal processes, these are often handled in co-operation with AMSAT, the Amateur Satellite group: amsat.org
Due to bandwidth limitations, for "angle modulation", meaning FM or PM (phase modulation), the highest modulation index permitted is 1.0.
Amateurs are permitted to operate via satellites operating in the Amateur Satellite Service.
Due to the global nature operations of low-earth orbiting satellites, operation is limited to bands (or sub-bands) which are in Amateur use globally. The only requirement to operate via satellites is being permitted to transmit on the uplink frequency. To be a control operator of a "bird" requires only the permission of the licensee, and an amateur licence which permits transmission on the control frequency.
Permitted HF bands are 40, 20, 17, 15, 12, and 10 metres, which excludes the long wavelength 80 metres, the 60 metre channels, and the heavily restricted 30 metre band. On VHF it is only 2 metres, the only universally available VHF band. On UHF the exam lists 70 cm and 13 cm. 23 cm is also permitted, as are various SHF & EHF.
Satellites often include a transmitter sending telemetry, including the status of onboard systems. This can be Morse, or data modes. These are specifically listed as permitted one-way transmissions, along with beacons and telecommand stations.
CubeSats are 1, 2, or 3 units, each 10 cm × 10 cm × 10 cm, or 1 decimetre cubed (1 dm²), also termed 1 litre. Aussies might visualise a 2 litre milk bottle.
Of significant interest is the satellite the Chinese have launched to orbit the moon, in 2018. This means it will have long periods of visibility over broad areas.
These are the actual questions from the Extra licence exam pool, as published by the NCVEC. Square brackets contain the relevant regulations number; these do NOT appear on the actual exams.E1C01 [97.303]
Each channel is 2.8 kHz wide for voice operations, and again, this limit applies to data on each channel, answer D.E1C02 [97.117]
The first two answers are just plain stupid, making the last invalid. Thus, it is answer C, discussions of Amateur radio operation and equipment, and general comments on the weather, etc.E1C03 [97.109(d)]
The control operator does not have to be at the control point of a station (repeater, APRS weather station, etc) under automatic control, answer B.E1C04
This is a system, called the "international amateur radio permit" which allows operation in various countries in the Americas, answer A.E1C05 [97.221(c)(1),[97.115(c)]
Never, answer A.
For example, a family member can't type messages into your packet BBS system if they are not a Ham.E1C06
As the US licence does not have the text which the CEPT requires, you must carry the notice referred to in answer C
VK Advanced licences, for example, contain the required text, as do licences issued by CEPT countries. The text is in English, French, and German.E1C07 [97.3(a)(8)]
This is the largest value, 26 dB, answer D.
At 1500 watts PEP, dividing by 100, then halving twice, gives us 3.75 watts PEP at this point. Even this power is potentially a problem for someone in the next state trying to listen to a Foundation licence holder in another country, using 5 or 10 watts.E1C08 [97.213]
If the link fails, the remotely controlled station must cease operations within 3 minutes, answer B.E1C09 [97.307]
This is 1.0, answer B, to keep within the permitted bandwidth.E1C10 [97.307]
It is at least 43 dB, answer A.
This is 1/20000 the power of the main signal.E1C11 [97.5]
US citizens with an appropriate US licence can use the CEPT agreement to operate in Europe (plus, in many cases, overseas territories of member countries, such as New Caledonia); and many European Amateurs can operate in the US, answer A.E1C12 [97.305(c)]
While voice is permitted in all of this small band, answer D, you should still respect informal band-plans.E1C13 [97.303(g)]
Due to risk of interference with signalling on power lines, operators must inform the Utilities Telecom Council, answer C.E1C14 [97.303(g)]
Operators must wait 30 days, answer B.
PLC systems use signals on power lines to command switching of various power company equipment.E1D01 [97.3] What is the definition of the term telemetry?
The word literally means remote (or at a distance) measuring, so it is a one way transmission from measurement equipment, answer A.
This can include things like power supply status, battery voltage, etc, of a repeater.E1D02 [97.211(b)]
Command signals to a satellite or "space station" are encrypted, as it is necessary that trouble-makers cannot command the satellite to do something damaging to its onboard systems, hence answer A.E1D03 [97.3(a)(45)]
Telecommand is commanding a station from a distance, in other words, it is a station which transmits to a space station (satellite) to control its operations, answer B.E1D04 [97.119(a)]
Quite simply, this is the callsign, answer A.E1D05 [97.207]
You need to be able to operate on the bands it uses, so it is the class with appropriate operator privileges, answer C.E1D05 [97.213(d)]
This might be a repeater, a remotely controlled station, or similar. In these cases the documents listed in all answers must be placed in the station, answer D. The 50 km limit neans this applies to a station in a building, shelter, communications site, vehicle, ship, aircraft, etc, but not a satellite.E1D06 [97.215(c)]
To communicate from a typically hand-held controller, to a craft which is most usually in visual range, requires little power, hence the 1 watt limit in answer A.E1D07 [97.207]
It is the 40, 20, 17, 15, 12, and 10 metre bands, answer A.
How to remember this? All bands from 7 MHz and up, except the itsy-bitsy, teeny-weeny 30 metre band (10 MHz). The latter is a band with various restrictions, such as no voice or image transmissions in most countries.E1D08 [97.207]
It is only 2 metres, answer D. The other bands are not available to Hams globally, with 1.25 metres is only for Amateur use in the Americas only, and 6 metres has been used for TV broadcasting in Europe.E1D09 [97.207]
Dump 33 cm (902 MHz) as it is an Americas only band, so a satellite operating on this band over areas where this is use for other services is a bad idea. It is 70 cm and 13 cm, answer B.
This is not an exhaustive list, but the answer which includes a correct selection of such bands.E1D10 [97.211]
It is any station designated by the satellite owner / licensee, answer B.E1D11 [97.209]
As long as the control operator can transmit on the uplink frequency in the appropriate mode, they can operate the station as an earth station, answer D.E1D12 [97.207(e), 97.203(g)]
These are space stations (satellites), beacons, or telecommand (remote control) stations, answer A.
On to: Extra Regulations 3 - Volunteer Examiners and Misc Regs.
You can find links to lots more on the Learning Material page.
Written by Julian Sortland, VK2YJS & AG6LE, May 2022.
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